Important Elements and terms of Botany

वनस्पति विज्ञान की महत्वपूर्ण तत्व और शर्तें (Vanaspati Vigyaan Ki Mehatvapurn Tatv Aur Sharten)

Find a huge list of Important elements and terms related to Botany (science) with it’s definition and explanation.

  • Acid: It is a substance which releases hydrogen ions in water and has a pH less than 7, e.g. hydrochloric acid in the human stomach.
  • Adolescence: It is the period in the human life cycle between puberty and maturity.
  • Additive: In food technology, any natural or artificial chemical added to prolong the shelf life of processed foods (salt or nitrates), alter the colour or flavour of food, or minerals).
  • Aerobe: It is an organisation which requires oxygen to survive.
  • Agar: It is a jelly obtained from seaweeds which is used as a medium for culturing bacteria.
  • Algae: A large group of primitive plants, mostly aquatic and capable of photosynthesis.
  • Allogamy: It is cross-fertilization.
  • Anatomy: It is the study of the structure of the body and its components parts, especially the human body, as distinguished form physiology, which is the study of bodily functions.
  • Antibiotic: It is a substance, synthesizes by micro organism, which damages or kills other micro organism.
  • Anther: In a flower, the upper part of a stamen containing pollen grains.
  • Aquatic: It means living in water. All life originated in the early oceans.
  • Asexual reproduction: It is reproduction in which new organisms are formed a single parent without gamete production.
  • Autogamy: It means self fertilization.
  • Autoclave: It is a pressure cooker used for the sterilization of materials.
  • Auxins: These are plant hormones which control many aspects of plant growth.
  • Baermann funnel: It is an apparatus used to isolate organisms living in soil water, e.g. algae protozoa.
  • Balanced diet: It is the diet that includes carbohydrated, protein, fat, vitamins, water, minerals and roughage.
  • Benthos: These are the flora and fauna of the bottom of oceans and lakes.
  • Beriberi: It is inflammation of the nerve endings, mostly occurring in the tropics and resulting from a deficiency of vitamin B (thiamine).
  • Biology: It is the study of living things. There are many specializations including cytology (the study of cells), zoology (the study of animals), and ecology (the study of the environment).
  • Biotechnology: It is the industrial use of living organisms to manufacture food, drugs or other products.
  • Biofuel: It is a kind of fuel which is made from natural materials or waste.
  • Biomass: It is the total weight of all the organisms in a particular habitat.
  • Biosphere: It is the entire zone of air, land and water at the surface of the earth that is occupied by living things.
  • Bulb: It is an organ of storages and vegetative reproduction.
  • Caffeine: It is a mildly addictive alkaloid found in a number of plants, such as tea, coffee and cola.
  • Capillary action: It is the spontaneous movement of liquids up or down narrow tubes such as plant xylem vessels or the spaces existing between soil particles.
  • Canines: These are sharp pointed tearing teeth near the front of the mouth used for killing prey and ripping of pieces of food.
  • Cannabis: It is the source of a fibre and drugs like hashish and marijuana. Also called the Indian hemp or bhang plant.
  • Cartilage: It is a flexible bluish-white connective tissue made up of the protein collagen.
  • Casein: It is the main protein of milk, from which it can be separated by the action of acid, the enzyme rennin, or bacteria (souring); It is also the main component of cheese.
  • Carpel: It is the female reproductive organ of a flower (megas-poprophyII) bearing the ovules which mature into seeds after fertilization.
  • Cell: It is the smallest functional and structural unit of all living organisms.
  • Cereal: It is the grass grown for its edible starch seeds. The term cereal refers primarily to barley and wheat, but may also refer to oats, maize, rye, millet and rice.
  • Chlorophyll: It is the green coloured pigment university found in plants, responsible for capturing the energy for photosynthesis.
  • Clavicle: It is the collar bone, in humans, it is vulnerable to fracture.
  • Cornea: It is the transparent front section of the eye. The cornea is curved and behaves as a fixed lens, so that light entering the eye is partly focused before it reaches the lends.
  • Corolla: It is a collective name for the petals of a flower.
  • Death rate: It is the number of deaths, measured in the human population as the number of deaths in one year per 1000 of population.
  • Deciduous: These are trees and shrubs that shed their leaves before the onset of winter or a dry season.
  • Defoliant: It is a chemical sprayed on plants that causes leaves to fall of prematurely.
  • Desertification: It is the natural or man made conversation of arable or forest land into barren deserts.
  • Down’s syndrome: It is a human abnormality caused by a mutation in which the ovum has an extra chromosome.
  • Ecology: It is the study of structure and function of nature.
  • Ectotherm: It is a cold-blooded animal, such as a lizard, that relies on external warmth to raise its body temperature so that it can become active.
  • Egestion: It is the removal of undigested food or faeces from the gut.
  • Enzyme: It is a biological catalyst produced in cells and capable of speeding up the chemical reactions necessary for life by converting one molecule (substrate) into another.
  • Epidermis: It is the outermost layers of cells on an organism’s body.
  • Faeces: These are remains of food and other debris passed out of the digestive tract of animals.
  • Fallopian: It is a tube or oviduct in mammals one of the two tubes that carry ova (eggs) from the ovary to the uterus.
  • Fibrin: It is an insoluble blood protein used by the body to stop bleeding.
  • Fossil: These are remains or traces of animal and plant life of the past found embedded in rock.
  • Fossil fuel: It is the fuel such as coal, oil and natural gas. These are remains of organism embedded in the surface of the earth.
  • Fungi: These are primitive members of the plant family.
  • Fungus: It is a kind of living thing, a simple plant which cannot make its own food.
  • Grafting: It is the process of uniting parts of two plants to form a single plant.
  • Habitat: It is the locality or external environment in which a plant or animal lives.
  • Haploid: It is an organism or structure having a single set of unpaired chromosomes.
  • Herbarium: It is an organized collection of plant specimens for identification and reference purposes.
  • Hermaphrodite: It is an organism having both male and female reproductive organs in the same individual.
  • Horticulture: It is a branch of agriculture dealing with garden crops, generally fruits, vegetables and ornamentals.
  • Iris: It is the structure in the vertebrate eye which controls the size of the pupil and hence the amount of light entering the eye.
  • Metabolism: It describes all the change that happens inside living things.
  • Ossicles: These are the three tiny linked bones in the mammalian middle ear.
  • Ovule: It is a somewhat oval body attached to the ovary wall in a flower which matures into a seed after fertilization.
  • Parasitism: It is a biological association between organisms in which one, the parasite, benefits at the expense of the other, the host.
  • Palate: It is in mammals, the ceiling of the mouth.
  • Predator: It is an animal that feeds on other animals which are called the prey.
  • Radiocarbon dating: It is the method of finding out the age of fossils by determining the amount of radiocarbon remaining in them.
  • Retina: It is light-sensitive tissue lining the interior of the vertebrate eye, and consisting of two types of cells.
  • Rhizome: It is an organ of vegetative reproduction in flowering plants consisting of a horizontal underground stem growing from a parent plant.
  • Root: It is part of a flowering plant that normally grows down into the soil.
  • Savannah: It is a grassland with scattered trees.
  • Saprophyte: It is an organism that feeds on dead and decaying plants and animals, causing decomposition.
  • Short sight: It is Myopia.
  • Transplantation: It is the relocation of seedlings from nursery beds to the actual site of plantation.
  • Tropism: It is a plant growth movement in response to a stimulus, for example, light.
  • Tuber: It is an organ of vegetative reproduction in flowering plants.
Read Also:  Important Terms of Biology


Important Elements and terms of Botany
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