Bihar- The name of the state itself is redolent of its historical past. ‘Vihar’ means monastery evoking the rich heritage of innumerable Buddist and Jain monasteries that once enriched this land thousands of years ago. The Buddha and Mahavira lived and preached in this area much of their lives. In the heart of ancient kingdom of Magadha and 15 km from Gaya stands the peepal tree under which Gautam the Prince of Kapilavastu attained enlightenment and became the Buddha, the ‘enlightened one’. The Mahabodhi temple in Bodhgaya is the most sacred shrine in praise of Lord Buddha.

An ancient international Buddhist university renowned for excellence of teaching throughout south east. Asia flourished in Nalanda which lies 90 km south of Patna. Pawapuri, also known as the sinless is a very sacred Jain pilgrimage centre. It was here that Lord Mahavira breathed his last. The Hazaribagh wildlife sanctuary which stretches over 184 sq km is rich in wildlife. The other notable sanctuary is the Palamau National park. Bihar’s unique and popular folk art is Madhubani- line paintings done by the woman of Mithila.

Tourist Places in Bihar

Patna – 2500 years old and the old Pataliputra of the Magadh empire, it is the capital. Khuda Boksh Oriental Library with are Islamic manuscripts, mosques, dargahs, gurudwaras. Birth place of Guru Govind Singh. Airport: Patna.

Sonepur – famous for the cattle fair.

Nalanda – ruins of ancient Buddhist University. The Buddha and Mahavira taught nearby. Its library once held 9 students form many countries. Airport: Patna

Rajgir – pilgrimage place for Buddhist and Jains. The first Buddhist council after the Buddha’s death was held here. In a bamboo park here, the Buddha lived with his disciples. Vishwa Shanti Stupa, aerial ropeway hot springs. Airport: Patna.

Gaya- Hindu pilgrimage place Airport: Gaya.

Bodhgaya- the Buddha attained enlightenment here under the bodhi tree. Mahabodhi temple, Burmese, Tibetan, Chinese, Thai and Japanese Monasteries. Airport: Patna.

Vaishali – the Buddha preached his last sermon here and the second Buddhist Council met here in 383 AD. It is the birthplace of Lord Mahavira. Said to be the first republic in the world in ancient times. Ashoka pillar.

Hazaribagh, Palamau– Wildlife sanctuaries.

Ranchi – an industrial city set in picturesque Chhotanagpur, former summer capital of Bihar. Airport : Ranchi .

Jamshedpur – eastern headquarter of the Tata industries, a very modern well planned city. Airport: Jamshedpur.

Dhanbad, Chittaranjan, Bokaro – industrial cities with a concentration of steel, locomotive coal and other heavy industries.

List of Districts and their Headquarters of Bihar State in India

DistrictHeadquartersArea (km²)Official website
ArariaAraria2,829www.araria.bih.nic.in
ArwalArwal4,839www.arwal.bih.nic.in
AurangabadAurangabad3,303www.aurangabad.bih.nic.in
BankaBanka3,018www.banka.bih.nic.in
BegusaraiBegusarai1,917www.begusarai.bih.nic.in
BhagalpurBhagalpur2,569www.bhagalpur.bih.nic.in
BhojpurArrah2,473www.bhojpur.bih.nic.in
BuxarBuxar1,624www.buxar.bih.nic.in
DarbhangaDarbhanga2,278www.darbhanga.bih.nic.in
East ChamparanMotihari3,969www.eastchamparan.bih.nic.in
GayaGaya4,978www.gaya.bih.nic.in
GopalganjGopalganj2,033www.gopalganj.bih.nic.in
JamuiJamui3,099www.jamui.bih.nic.in
JehanabadJehanabad1,569www.Jehanabad.bih.nic.in
KhagariaKhagaria1,486www.khagaria.bih.nic.in
KishanganjKishanganj1,884www.kishanganj.bih.nic.in
KaimurBhabua3,363www.kaimur.bih.nic.in
KatiharKatihar3,056www.katihar.bih.nic.in
LakhisaraiLakhisarai1,229www.lakhisarai.bih.nic.in
MadhubaniMadhubani3,501www.madhubani.bih.nic.in
MungerMunger1,419www.munger.bih.nic.in
MadhepuraMadhepura1,787www.madhepura.bih.nic.in
MuzaffarpurMuzaffarpur3,173www.muzaffarpur.bih.nic.in
NalandaBihar Sharif2,354www.nalanda.bih.nic.in
NawadaNawada2,492www.nawada.bih.nic.in
PatnaPatna3,202www.patna.bih.nic.in
PurniaPurnia3,228www.purnia.bih.nic.in
RohtasSasaram3,850www.rohtas.bih.nic.in
SaharsaSaharsa1,702www.saharsa.bih.nic.in
SamastipurSamastipur2,905www.samastipur.bih.nic.in
SheoharSheohar443www.sheohar.bih.nic.in
SheikhpuraSheikhpura689www.sheikhpura.bih.nic.in
SaranChhapra2,641www.saran.bih.nic.in
SitamarhiSitamarhi2,199www.sitamarhi.bih.nic.in
SupaulSupaul2,410www.supaul.bih.nic.in
SiwanSiwan2,219www.siwan.bih.nic.in
Vaishali(Akshay)Hajipur2,036www.vaishali.bih.nic.in
West ChamparanBettiah5,229www.westchamparan.bih.nic.in

List of Indian States, and information like their capital, language of state and year of establishment.
StatesCapitalLanguagesYear of Establishment
Andhra PradeshHyderabadTelugu and Urdu1951
Arunachal PradeshItanagerMiji, Apotanji, Merdukpen, Tagin,Adi, Honpa, Bangini-Nishi1972
AssamDispurAssamese1975
BiharPatnaHindi1912
ChhattisgarhRaipurHindi2000
GoaPanajiMarathi and Konkani1961
GujaratGandhinagarGujarati1970
HaryanaChandigarhHindi1966
Himachal Pradesh
ShimlaHindi and Pahari1948
Mizoram
AizawlMizo and English1972
Jammu & Kashmir

Srinagar (Summer),Jammu (Winter) Kashmiri,Dogri, Urdu, Ladakhi,Pahari,Punjabi and Dadri1948
JharkhandRanchiHindi2000
KarnatakaBangaloreKannda1956
KeralaTrivandrumMalayalam1956
Madhya PradeshBhopalHindi1956
MaharashtraBombayMarathi1818
ManipurImphalManipuri1947
MeghalayaShillongKhasi, Jaintia and Garo1970
Nagaland
KohimaAo, Konyak, Angami, Sema and Lotha1963
Orissa
BhubaneswarOriya1948
PunjabChandigarhPunjabi1966
RajasthanJaipurRajasthani and Hindi1948
SikkimGangtokBhutia, Hindi, Nepali, Lepcha, Limbu1975
Tamil NaduChennaiTamil1688
TripuraAgartalaBengali, Tripuri, Manipuri, Kakborak1956
Uttar PradeshLucknowHindi1937
UttarakhandDehra DunHindi2000
West BengalCalcuttaBengali1947
Union territories:
Andaman & Nicobar1956
Lakshadweep1956
Chandigarh1966
National Capital Territory of Delhi2001
Dadra and Nagar Haveli1941
Pondicherry1954
Daman and Diu1987

Bihar
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