Nobel Prizes-The Nobel prizes are awarded each year under the will of Alfred Nobel, Swedish chemist, engineer and inventor of dynamite, who died in 1896. The award is given to those who have made most outstanding contribution in the field of physics, chemistry and physiology or medicine, who have produced most distinguished literary work of an idealist tendency and those who have contributed most towards world peace. The Nobel Prize for economics was first awarded in 1969 and was established by Riksband, the Central Bank of Sweden. Other awards started in 1901.The fund is managed by a board of directors, the head of which is appointed by the Swedish Government.
Magsaysay Awards-This award was instituted in memory of the Philippines President Ramon Magsaysay who died in an air crash in 1957. The award carries a gold medal, $ 50,000 and a certificate a and is awarded for the following five services : (i) Government service (GS); (ii ) Public service(PL); (iii) Community Leadership (CL); (iv) Journalism, Literature and Communicative Arts (JLCCA); (v) Peace and International Understanding (PIU), the awards have been given from 1958 onwards and Emergent Leadership (started in 2001).
Kalinga Prize– This award is presented each year by the United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) to a person with a distinguished career of service in the interpretation of science and research to the public.The prize was instituted by Biju Patnaik, industrialist and politician who is the founder and Chairman of the Kalinga Foundation Trust in the State of Orissa. UNESCO awarded the prize for the first time in 1952. The prize comprises an award of 1,000 UK pounds.
Templeton Foundation Prize– This is awarded by the Templeton – foundation for progress in religion and was instituted in 1972. The main intention of the prize is to call attention and provide recognition to ideas, insights, actions and accomplishments which have been or may be instrumental in widening man’s love in God.
Pulitzer Prizes-This has been established by Joseph Pulitzer an American publisher, in 1917 to encourage literature and journalism in USA. The awards are given in the fields of General Reporting, National Reporting, Feature Writing, Poetry, Biography, Fiction, Drama, History, Special Local Reporting, International Reporting and for public service.
E.M. Forster Award-This award is given to an Indian author for contribution to English literature and was instituted by a Publishing Company.
Jawaharlal Nehru Award for International Understanding-This award was instituted by the Government of India. It is an annual award given for outstanding contribution to the promotion of international understanding, good will and friendship among the peoples of the world. The award carries an amount of Rs. 15 lakh and a citation.
Indira Gandhi Peace Award -The government prize of Rs. 33 lakh or its equivalent in foreign exchange in memory of Mrs. Indira Gandhi for outstanding contributions in the field of peace, disarmament and development. The administration of the prize has been entrusted to the Indira Gandhi Memorial Trust.
Simon Bolivar Prize– The $25,000 Prize is awarded by UNESCO every two years to reward activity of outstanding merit which, in accordance with the ideals of Simon Bolivar has contributed to freedom, independence and dignity of people and to the strengthening of new international economic, social and cultural order.
The Booker Prize– Established in 1968, the 50,000 pound Booker Prize, is awarded to the best novel published for the first time each year in UK by a British Publisher. The prize is open to novels written in English by citizen of the British Commonwealth,Republic of Ireland and South Africa.
Gandhi Peace Prize– Institute on the occasion of the 125th birth anniversary of Mahatma Gandhi in 1995, the annual award is the highest given by the Government of India in any field. The international peace prize, a Rs. 1 Crore worth award, was launched for recognizing socials economic and political transformation through non-violence and other Gandhian Methods.