India has a single judicial system which has brought about not only jurisdictional unity, but also the establishment of a single judicial cadre, as it were, for the whole country.
Appointment of Supreme Court Judge in India:
The Supreme court Judges in India are appointed by the President on the advice of his Council of Ministers and in consultation with such persons as he deems fit. In the appointment of the Chief Justice, the President consults such judges of the Supreme Court and High courts as he thinks necessary.
The Constitution envisages an independent Supreme Court. The independence of the judges is ensured by the following provisions (Article 124):
(1) Every judge of the Supreme Court is appointed by the President of India after consultation with such judges of the Supreme Court and of High Courts of the States as the President may deem necessary for the purpose. But in the appointment of a judge, other than a Chief Justice, consultation with the Chief Justice of India by the President is obligatory.
(2) The elimination of politics in the appointment of judges is further achieved by prescribing the minimum qualifications in the Constitution itself.
(3) A judge of the Supreme Court, once appointed, holds office until he completes the age of sixty-five years.
(4) A retired judge is prohibited from practising law before any court in India.
(5) A Supreme Court judge can be removed from office by an order of the President only on the grounds of proved misbehaviour or incapacity after a resolution for the purpose is passed by both Houses of Parliament supported by a majority of the total membership of the House and a majority of not less than two-thirds of the members present and voting.
(6) The conditions of service of a judge cannot be altered to his disadvantage after his appointment.
(7) The independence of the judges is further safeguarded by making all their actions and decisions taken in their official capacity, immune from criticism and also providing for an establishment over which the Court has complete control.
Qualifications : Article 124(3) provides for the qualifications required for appointment as a Judge of the Supreme Court. The qualifications are :
(a) The person should be a citizen of India; and
(b) He/She should have been for at least five years a Judge of a High Court or of two or more such Courts in succession; or
(c) He/She has been for at least ten years an advocate of a High Court or of two or more such courts in succession; or
(d) He/She is, in the opinion of the President, a distinguished jurist.
There is not fixed tenure of a Chief Justice of India while there isn’t age limit for the retirement of Chief Justice of America.
We have 43 Chief Justice of India in 64 years while in America, there are less than us in 238 years.
The longest tenure of a CJI is 2696 days (almost 7 years and 5 months).
The shortest tenure of a CJI is 17 days.
There are 56893 cases are due in the supreme of India by the date of 30 April, 2014.
List of Chief Justices of India appointed after Independence (Arranged According To Seniority):
|Number||Name||Term Began||Term End||Bar||Appointed By|
|1||H. J. Kania||26-Jan-50||6-Nov-51||Bombay High Court||Rajendra Prasad|
|2||M. Patanjali Sastri||7-Nov-51||3-Jan-54||Madras High Court|
|3||Mehr Chand Mahajan||4-Jan-54||22-Dec-54||East Punjab High Court|
|4||Bijan Kumar Mukherjea||23-Dec-54||31-Jan-56||Calcutta High Court|
|5||Sudhi Ranjan Das||1-Feb-56||30-Sep-59||Calcutta High Court|
|6||Bhuvaneshwar Prasad Sinha||1-Oct-59||31-Jan-64||Patna High Court|
|7||Prahlad Balacharya Gajendragadkar||1-Feb-64||15-Mar-66||Bombay High Court||Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan|
|8||Amal Kumar Sarkar||16-Mar-66||29-Jun-66||Calcutta High Court|
|9||Koka Subba Rao||30-Jun-66||11-Apr-67||Madras High Court|
|10||Kailas Nath Wanchoo||12-Apr-67||24-Feb-68||Allahabad High Court|
|11||Mohammad Hidayatullah||25-Feb-68||16-Dec-70||Bombay High Court||Zakir Hussain|
|12||Jayantilal Chhotalal Shah||17-Dec-70||21-Jan-71||Bombay High Court||Varahagiri Venkata Giri|
|13||Sarv Mittra Sikri||22-Jan-71||25-Apr-73||Lahore High Court|
|14||Ajit Nath Ray||26-Apr-73||27-Jan-77||Calcutta High Court|
|15||Mirza Hameedullah Beg||28-Jan-77||21-Feb-78||Allahabad High Court||Fakhruddin Ali Ahmed|
|16||Yeshwant Vishnu Chandrachud||22-Feb-78||11-Jul-85||Bombay High Court||Neelam Sanjiva Reddy|
|17||Prafullachandra Natwarlal Bhagwati||12-Jul-85||20-Dec-86||Gujarat High Court||Gyani Zail Singh|
|18||Raghunandan Swarup Pathak||21-Dec-86||18-Jun-89||Allahabad High Court|
|19||Engalaguppe Seetharamiah Venkataramiah||19-Jun-89||17-Dec-89||Karnataka High Court||Ramaswamy Venkataraman|
|20||Sabyasachi Mukharji||18-Dec-89||25-Sep-90||Calcutta High Court|
|21||Ranganath Misra||26-Sep-90||24-Nov-91||Orissa High Court|
|22||Kamal Narain Singh||25-Nov-91||12-Dec-91||Allahabad High Court|
|23||Madhukar Hiralal Kania||13-Dec-91||17-Nov-92||Bombay High Court|
|24||Lalit Mohan Sharma||18-Nov-92||11-Feb-93||Patna High Court||Shankar Dayal Sharma|
|25||Manepalli Narayana Rao Venkatachaliah||12-Feb-93||24-Oct-94||Karnataka High Court|
|26||Aziz Mushabber Ahmadi||25-Oct-94||24-Mar-97||Gujarat High Court|
|27||Jagdish Sharan Verma||25-Mar-97||17-Jan-98||Madhya Pradesh High Court|
|28||Madan Mohan Punchhi||18-Jan-98||9-Oct-98||Punjab and Haryana High Court||Kocheril Raman Narayanan|
|29||Adarsh Sein Anand||10-Oct-98||11-Jan-01||Jammu and Kashmir High Court|
|30||Sam Piroj Bharucha||11-Jan-01||6-May-02||Bombay High Court|
|31||Bhupinder Nath Kirpal||6-May-02||8-Nov-02||Delhi High Court|
|32||Gopal Ballav Pattanaik||8-Nov-02||19-Dec-02||Orissa High Court||A. P. J. Abdul Kalam|
|33||V. N. Khare||19-Dec-02||2-May-04||Allahabad High Court|
|34||S. Rajendra Babu||2-May-04||1-Jun-04||Karnataka High Court|
|35||Ramesh Chandra Lahoti||1-Jun-04||1-Nov-05||Madhya Pradesh High Court|
|36||Yogesh Kumar Sabharwal||1-Nov-05||13-Jan-07||Delhi High Court|
|37||K. G. Balakrishnan||13-Jan-07||11-May-10||Kerala High Court|
|38||S. H. Kapadia||12-May-10||28-Sep-12||Bombay High Court||Pratibha Patil|
|39||Altamas Kabir||29-Sep-12||18-Jul-13||Calcutta High Court||Pranab Mukherjee|
|40||P. Sathasivam||19-Jul-13||26-Apr-14||Madras High Court|
|41||Rajendra Mal Lodha||27-Apr-14||27-Sep-14||Rajasthan High Court|
|42||H. L. Dattu||28-Sep-14||2-Dec-15||Karnataka High Court|
|43||T. S. Thakur||3-Dec-15||3-Dec-15||Jammu and Kashmir High Court|
Related Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Chief_Justices_of_India