Nobel Prizes 2008, Awards Honours & Prizes

Chemistry Osamu Shimomura (USA), Martin Chalfie (USA), Roger Y. Tsien (USA) For the discovery and development if the green fluorescent protein GFP. The Remarkable brightly glowing GFP was first observed in the beautiful jellyfish. Aequorea Victoria in 1962 Since then, this protein has become one of the most important tools used in contemporary bioscience. With the aid of GFP, researchers have developed ways to watch processes that were previously invisible, such as the development of nerve cells in the brain of how cancer cells spread.
Physics Yoichiro  Nambu (USA) Makoto Kobayashi (Japan), Toshihide Maskawa (Japan) For helping to explain the behavior of subatomic particles, the work that has helped shape modern physics theory. The three men’s work done in the 1950s through the 1970s, predicted the behavior of the tiny particles known as quarks and underlies the standard model, which unites three of the four fundamental forces of nature: the strong nuclear force, weak nuclear force and electromagnetic force, which describes some interactions between protons and neutrons, which make up atoms, and the quarks that make up the protons and neutrons, Kobayashi and maskawa predicted there were three families of quarks, instead of the then known.
Medicine Haraid Zur  Hausen (Germany) Francoise barree-Sinoussi (France), Luc Montagnier (France) Harald has been awarded for his discovery of human papilloma Viruses (HPV) causing cervical cancer, the second most common cancer among women. His discovery has led to characterization of the history of HPV infection, an understanding of mechanisms of HPV-include carcinogenesis and the development if vaccines against for their discovery of human immunodeficency virus (HIV). HIV impairs the immune system because if massive virus replication and cell damage.
Economics Paul Krugman (USA) For his analysis of trade patterns and location of economics activity. Krugman, 55, a Professor of economics and international affairs at Princeton University, us and a columnist for the New York times, formulated a new theory to answer question about free trade. ‘What are the affects if free trade and globalization? What are he driving forces behind world wide urbanization? Krugman has formulated a new theory to answer these questions. He is well-known in academia for his work in international economics; include trade theory economics geography and international finance.
Literature Jean- Marie Gustave Le clezio (France) The Academy cited jean-Marie Gustave Le Clezio as “author of new departures, Poetic adventure and sensual ecstasy, explorer of a humanity beyond and below the reigning civilization.”Le Clezio, 48, received much attention with his first novel ‘The interrogation’ which was awarded the prix Renaudot in 1963.
Peace Martti Ahtisaari (Finland) For the past twenty years, he has figured prominently in endeavours to resolve several serious and long- lasting conflicts. In 1989-90he played a significant part in the establishment of Namibia’s independence; in 2005he and his organization CMI were central to he solution of the complicated Aceh question in Indonesia.  In 1999 and again in 2 005-07, he sought under especially difficult circumstances To find a solution to the conflict in Kosovo. In 2008, through the CMI and in cooperation with other institute, Ahtisaari has tried to help find a peaceful conclusion to the problems in Iraq.
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Nobel Prizes 2008, Awards Honours & Prizes
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