Important Discoveries of Scientific Laws and Theories their Name and Inventor

Important Discovery of Scientific Laws and Theories

A scientific law is a statement based on repeated experimental observations that describes some aspects of the universe. A scientific law always applies under the same conditions, and implies that there is a causal relationship involving its elements. Factual and well-confirmed statements like “Mercury is liquid at standard temperature and pressure” are considered too specific to qualify as scientific laws. A central problem in the philosophy of science, going back to David Hume, is that of distinguishing causal relationships (such as those implied by laws) from principles that arise due to constant conjunction.

Laws differ from scientific theories in that they do not posit a mechanism or explanation of phenomena: they are merely distillations of the results of repeated observation. As such, a law is limited in applicability to circumstances resembling those already observed, and may be found false when extrapolated. Ohm’s law only applies to linear networks, Newton’s law of universal gravitation only applies in weak gravitational fields, the early laws of aerodynamics such as Bernoulli’s principle do not apply in case of compressible flow such as occurs in transonic and supersonic flight, Hooke’s law only applies to strain below the elastic limit, etc. These laws remain useful, but only under the conditions where they apply.

Famous Discoveries of Scientific Laws and Theories in the World

Name of Inventor Scientific Laws and Theories
John Dalton Atomic Theory
Max von Planck Dynamic Theory of Heat-Kelvin Quantum Theory
Euclid First Formal Statement of Geometrical Principles
Albert Einstein General and Special Theories of Relativity
C.A. Coulomb Law of Attraction and Revision of Electrical Charges
 Joule Law of Conservation of Energy
Fink Law of Diffusion
G S. Ohm Law of Electrical Resistance or Ohm’s Law
 Dalton Law of Falling Bodies-Galileo Law of Multiple Proportion
 Darwin Law of Natural Selection
Steidmetz Law of Practical Calculation of Alternating Current
 Archimedes Law of Specific Gravity
Newton Law of Universal Gravitation
Michael Faraday Laws of Electrolysis
Newton Laws of Motion
 Snell Laws of Refraction of Light
 Avogadro Molecular Hypothesis
 Kepler Motion-Laws of Planetary
A. Becquerel Radioactivity
Archimedes Theory of Displacement of Water or Laws of floatation
Hahn Uranium-Fission Theory
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