IBPS Bank Probationary Officer – 2011 (English Language)

Institute of Banking Personnel Selection
Banks Probationary officers Common Written Examination-2011
(English Language)

Directions (Q. 1-10): Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions given below it.

Today, with a Nobel Prize to its credit . Grameen is one of the largest microfinance organisations in the world. It started out lending small sums to poor entrepreneurs in Bangladesh to help them grow from a subsistence living to a livelihood. The great discovery its founders made was that even with few assets, these entrepreneurs repaid on time. Grameen and microfinance have since become financial staples of the developing world. Grameen’s approach, unlike other microfinancers uses the group- lending model. Costs are kept down by having borrowers vet one another, tying together their financial fates and eliminating expensive loan officers entirely. The ultimate promise of Grameen is to use business lending as a way for people to lift themselves out of poverty.

Recently Grameen has taken on a different challenge – by setting up operations in the United States Money may be tight in the waning recession, but it is still a nation of 1,00,000 bank branches. Globally, the, working microfinance equation consists of borrowing funds cheaply and keeping loan defaults and overhead expenses sufficiently low. Microlenders, including Grameen, do this by charging colossal interest rates – as high as 60% or 70% – which is necessary to compensate for the risk and attract bank funding. But loans at rates, much above the standard 15% would most likely be attacked as usurious in America.

So, the question is whether there is a role for a Third World lender in the world’s largest economy? Grameen America, believes that in a few years it will be successful and turn a profit, thanks to 9 million United States households untouched by main-stream banks and 21 million using the likes of payday loans and pawn shops for financing. But enticing the unbanked won’t be easy. After all, profit has long eluded United States rnicrofinanciers and if it is not lucrative; it is not microlending – but charity. When Grameen first went to the United States, in the late 1980s, it tripped up. Under Grameen’s tutelage, Banks started micro loans to entrepreneurs with a shocking 30% loss. But Grameen America says that this time results will be different because Grameen employees themselves will be making the loans, not training an American bank to do it. More often than not, the borrowers . Grameen finds in the United states already have jobs (as factory workers for example) or side businesses – selling toys, cleaning houses etc. The loans from Grameen, by and large, provide a steadier source of funding, but they don’t create businesses out of nothing. But money isn’t everything. More importantly for many entrepreneurs, group members are tremendous sources of support to one another. So even if studies are yet to determine if Grameen is a clear-cut pathway out of poverty, it still achieves something useful.

Directions (11-15): Read each sentence to find out whether there is any grammatical mistake/error in it. The error if any, will be in one part of the sentence. Mark the number of the part with error as your answer. If there is ‘No error” mark (e).

Directions (16-20): In each question a sentence with two words/groups of words printed in bold type are given. One of them or both of them may have a certain error. You have to find out the correct word/group of words from among the four choices given below each sentence to replace the incorrect words.’ group of words and make the sentence grammatically correct and meaningful. If the sentence is correct as it is mark (e) ‘No correction required’ as your answer.

Directions (21-30): Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions given below’ it.

The great recession has not been great for free trade. As unemployment has been throughout the world, governments have become more focused on protecting their own Industries than on promoting international commerce. The U. S. though typically an enthusiastic supporter of open markets in duded “buy American” clauses in its stimulus package and propped up its railing auto industry with handouts.

But according to the Asian Development Bank (ADB), in the part of the world that was hit hardest by the trade crash-Asia, the number of Free- Trade Agreements (FTAs) signed by Asian countries has grown from Just three in 2000 to 56 by the end of August 2009. Nineteen of those FTAs are among 16 Asian economies a trend that could help the region become a powerful trading bloc.

The drive to lower trade barriers has taken on fresh urgency amid, the recession. As Asian manufacturing networks become more intertwined – and as Asian consumers become wealthier-regional commerce is becoming critical to future economic expansion. Intraregional trade last year made up 57% of total Asian trade, up from 37% in 1980. In the past Asia produced for America and Europe, now Asia is producing for Asia.

Of course, Asia is still dependent on sales to the West. But FTAs could reduce the region’s exposure to the United States by giving Asian companies preferential treatment in selling to Asian companies and consumers. These benefits could come with down-sides, however. According to experts. FTAs create a “non- level playing field with advantages for Asian countries”. If the most dynamically growing part of the global economy gives the U .S. restricted access it will impact global balance. Companies in countries like the United States left out of the trade ‘pacts could face disadvantages when trying to tap fast – growing Asian markets, This, in turn, could have a negative impact on efforts 10 rebalance excessive debt in the U.S. and excessive savings in Asia. Still, the benefits of greater regional integration could prove powerful enough to over-come the roadblocks. In Asia, the only thing everyone agrees upon is business. If it does, the world economy may never be the same.

Directions (31-35): In each question below a sentence with four words printed in bold type is given. These are numbered as (a), (b), (c) and (d). One of these four boldly printed words, may be either wrongly spelt or inappropriate in the context of the sentence. Find out the word which is wrongly spelt or inappropriate, if any. The number of that word is your answer. If all the boldly printed words. are correctly spelt and also appropriate in the context of the sentence, mark (e) i.e. ‘All Correct’ as your answer.

Directions (36-40): In each question, there are two statements which can be combined into a single statement in a number of different ways without changing their meaning. Below them are given three probable starters (A), (B) and (C) of such a combined sentence. One, two, three or none of them may be correct. Decide upon which is/are correct, if any, and mark the option which denotes your answer. If none of the three starters is suitable mark (e) i.e.; ‘None’ as your answer.

Directions (41-50): In the following passage there are blanks, each of which has been numbered. These numbers are printed below the passage and against each, five words are suggested, one of which fits the blank appropriately. Find out the appropriate word in each case.

Seed quality is an (41) aspect of crop production. For ages, farmers have traditionally been selecting and (42) good quality seed, since it was in their interest to do so. They knew and understood the importance of quality seed in production. However, with the advent of green revolution technology, based (43) on the high-yielding dwarf varieties of wheat and rice, mainstream thinking changed. Agricultural scientists, for reasons that remain (44) began to doubt, the ability of farmers to maintain seed quality (45). Aided by the World Bank, the Ministry of Agriculture launched a National Seeds Project in 1967. Under the project spread into three phases, seed processing plants werre (46) up in nine states. Six states were covered under phase three. All that the huge processing plants were (47) to do was to provide ‘certified’ seeds of food crops, mainly self- pollinating crops, to farmers. In mid-1980s, the International Rice Research Institute (IRRI) in the Philippines concluded a study which (48) that there was hardly any difference in the crop yields from transplanted rice and from the crop sown by broad casted seeds. One would wonder why, in the first instance, were the farmers, asked to (49) over to transplanting paddy? The answer is simple – probably, to help the mechanical industries grow. Since rice, is the staple food in Asia, tractor sales could only grow if there was a way to move the machine in the rice fields. No wonder, the sales of tractors, puddlers, reapers and other associated (50) soared in the rice growing areas.

Institute of Banking Personnel Selection
Banks Probationary officers Common Written Examination-2011
(English Language Solved Sample Questions 2011)

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